Biological diversity has enabled Guatemala to stand among the 25 countries with the most variety of natural resources in the world. Millions of species living in its varied ecosystems, 748 species of birds, thirty-five of them are regional endemic (Guatemala and Mexico frontiers), and a world-class bird lover has to visit Guatemala at least once in life to watch them.
Also, there are around forty species which only can be found in Central America, and Guatemala is the perfect place to watch the better populations of them, and you do not have to visit another site in the region.
The country has 14 ecoregions which range from mangrove forest (four types), within both marine littorals, dry forests and scrublands within the eastern highlands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, swamplands, cloud forests inside Verapaz district, combined woodlands and pine forests within the highlands.
Over one-third of Guatemala (36.3% or about 39,380 km²) is wooded (2005). Up to 50 % of the forests (49.7% or approximately 19,570 km²) classed like a primary forest which is among the most biodiverse forest kind. Tree species contain 17 conifers (pines, cypress, which includes the endemic Abies guatemalensis), quite possibly the most in any tropical location on the planet.
Guatemala has seven estuarine habitats of global relevance which included within the Ramsar Listing.
Guatemala has some 1246 recognized types of amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles by numbers from the World Conservation Monitoring Center. Of those, 6.7% are endemic, which means they exist in no other country, and 8.1% are vulnerable species. Additionally, it is home to no less than 8681 varieties of vascular plant life, of which 13.5% are endemic. 5.4% of the nation guarded under categories I-V of IUCN.
With a total amount of 123 protected areas and over 29% of the terrain stated as protected reserves, Guatemala has the most substantial number of protected areas in Central America. Tikal National Park, established in 1955, was the first mixed UNESCO World Heritage Site on the planet.
Guatemala is mountainous, except the southern area of region coastal region and also the vast northern lowlands of Petén department. Two mountain chains enter into Guatemala from west to east, splitting the country into three main areas: the highlands, the place that the mountain tops are situated; the Pacific coast, south of the mountain range; and also the Petén district, northern from the mountains. These regions differ in weather, height, and scenery, supplying striking contrasts among humid and hot tropical lowlands and highland highs and valleys.
The southern fringe of the western highlands is marked by the Sierra Madre, which extends from the Mexican boundary to the south and east, and goes on at lower heights in the direction of El Salvador. The mountain chain described as steep volcanic cones, which includes Tajumulco Volcano 4,220 meters or 13,845 feet, the highest point in the country and Central America. Each of Guatemala’s 37 volcanoes (3 of these active: Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito, ), are in located within this mountain chain.
Weather conditions are humid and hot and humid within the Pacific and Petén Lowlands. It is much more temperate within the highlands, freezing at the high levels of the Cuchumatanes range, and hot/dryer inside the easternmost departments.